EFFECTS OF JUICE AND LEAVES EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP (Annona muricata) ON ENVENOMATION BY Lachesis muta rhombeata
Caroline M. Cremonez¹; Flávia P. Leite¹; Luisa H. D. Costa³; Zita M. O. Gregório³; Rodrigo C.G. de Souza²; Ana Maria de Souza³, Eliane C. Arantes¹.
¹Depto. Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. ²Fundação Hospitalar Itacaré, Itacaré – BA, Brazil.³ Depto. Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.
Lachesis muta rhombeata is found in the rainforests of Brazil's Atlantic region. Human accidents with these animals are severe. The pathological effects of L. muta rhombeata venom (Lmrv) result from its proteolytic, hemolytic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, coagulant, fibrinolytic, inflammatory and neurotoxic activities. While the antivenon will remain as the main tool in the treatment of the accidents, adjunct methods to minimize the damages of the delayed treatments are welcome. The search for alternative methods that can minimize, alter or delay the action of the venom is constant. In the North and Northeast of Brazil, Lachesis bites are treated with the aid of folk knowledge such as the oral intake of a juice or aqueous extract of leaves of A. muricata. The aim of this study was to analyze if treatments with leaves extract or juice of soursop are able to inhibit alterations induced by Lmrv. Changes in blood pressure as well as biochemical, hematological and haemostatic parameters were analyzed in blood of rats (200g) injected (+ control) or not (- control) with Lmrv (3mg/rat, i.m.) and submitted to oral treatment (test) with juice or leaves extract of soursop (3 gavages of 0.5 mL at -1h, 15min and 1h) The treatment was beneficial in: (1) recovery of renal function, as evidenced by reduced concentration of urea in groups treated with soursop leaf extract; (2) glycemic control; (3) coagulation disorders (the treatment with juice maintained the partial thromboplasmin time close to the control group when compared with untreated group); (4) protect against the myotoxicity of venom (creatine kinase concentration in the groups treated with juice and leaves extract was lower than in untreated group). However, treatments with juice and leaves extract seem to worsen (1) the hemolytic action of Lmrv (decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells), (2) the reduction of albumin and total protein – negative acute phase proteins; and (3) increased serum glutamic oxalic transaminase. These assays should be conducted with a larger number of rats to confirm these data.
Support: CNPq, FAPESP
Key-words: Lachesis muta rhombeata, Annona muricata, envenomation, anti-venom action.